Kurosols are also known as a type of podsolic or duplex soil with a definite change between the A and the bleached B horizon.
Profiles 14 (Glendarra Regeneration Area) and 15 (Glendarra Hunter Catchment Management Trust) provide an interesting comparison between cultivated areas and native areas of the same soil type.
This area (site 15) is from an area only recently fenced off from livestock, site 14 was taken out of agricultural production in 1978. They have the same general history but site 14 has had more time to recover from grazing pressure and has returned to native vegetation.
The profile at site 14 has an ideal soft and fluffy surface soil with abundant plant roots whereas at this site the A1 horizon sets hard when dry. This area was waterlogged at the top of the B horizon when sampled but site 14 wasn’t. The soil that has been returned to native vegetation has much better structure than the soil that has not.
On Tocal we find these:
- are problem soils
- are found on rolling slopes and crests and on old high terraces
- have parent material of weathered sedimentary rocks - sandstone/conglomerate
- support native vegetation of Spotted Gum forest
- can show dramatic increase in productivity with high inputs.
- 0cm: A1 horizon. Dark greyish brown loamy fine sand. Sets hard when dry, plant roots common, good drainage, trace of gravel, signs of regeneration activitiy at 5cm, pH 4.4
- 13cm: A1 (gravelly). Same colour and texture as above but the gravel content increases to moderate to heavy, plant roots as above, drainage as above.
- 26cm: A2 horizon. Greyish brown loamy sand. More than 70% gravel content, some pieces up to 100mm in diameter, massive structure, some plant roots, fair drainage - probably enhanced by the gravel, pH 4.8
- 43cm: B horizon. Grey and yellow brown sandy clay. Slight to moderate content of rounded gravel, clay is tough dense and cemented in the dry state, massive structure, only a few plant roots, poor drainage, horizon is waterlogged at the top, old tree root at about 60cm, pH 4.1
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